Over 500 organisations call on IMF to stop promoting austerity in Coronavirus recovery period

More than 500 organisations and academics from 87 countries, including PSI, have issued a statement today calling on the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to stop promoting austerity and instead support policies that advance gender justice, reduce inequality, and put people and planet first.

The IMF has already begun locking some countries into long term austerity-conditioned loans, while encouraging countries to take such recovery measures through its short-term, front loaded emergency financing packages. Such policies will further entrench gender and economic inequality and undermine any chance of an inclusive recovery, especially as many countries in the Global South are expected to need more long-term financing in the near future

The statement comes ahead of the IMF and World Bank Annual Meetings slated to begin next week (12-18 October).


We, the undersigned, call on the IMF to immediately stop promoting austerity around the world, and instead advocate policies that advance gender justice, reduce inequality, and decisively put people and planet first.

As those who care about governments’ ability to fulfil human rights and advance progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals, we express the utmost alarm at the IMF’s advice for countries to return to austerity once the current crisis recedes. This pandemic has laid bare the deadly repercussions of systematically weak investments in health, education and social protection, hardest felt by marginalized populations including women, older people, racial and ethnic minorities, informal workers and low-income families. This crisis has also shone light on the shrinking of the middle classes and worsening gap between rich and poor.

The IMF has spoken repeatedly of the need for a fair and green recovery. It has said that economic and gender inequality, climate change, and poor governance can weaken growth and undermine stability. In recent years, it developed operational guidance for staff on embedding gender and economic inequality analysis into its work and approved a macroeconomic framework for social spending. All of this would suggest that the IMF is ready to use its influence and authority to support countries in reducing inequality.

And yet, despite this rhetoric and its own warnings of deepening inequality, the IMF has already started locking countries into new long-term austerity-conditioned loan programs in the past few months. Beyond the conditionality in these recent programs, we note that a significant number of the IMF’s COVID-19 emergency financing packages contain language promoting fiscal consolidation in the recovery phase. And with governments struggling to pay increased debt servicing and expected to continue to need extraordinary levels of external financing for years to come, IMF loan programs - and the conditions that accompany them - will play a highly influential role in shaping the economic and social landscape in the aftermath of this pandemic.

Fiscal consolidation driven austerity would only worsen poverty and inequality and undermine the achievement of economic and social rights. The IMF’s own research corroborates this. Time and time again, rigid and rapid fiscal consolidation conditioned in IMF programs has meant devastating cuts in health and education investments, losses of hard-earned pensions and social protections, public wage freezes, layoffs, and exacerbated unpaid care work burdens. In all cases, it is the most vulnerable people in societies who bear the brunt of these reforms, while the elite, large corporations and creditors enjoy the benefits. Aside from the direct impacts, fiscal consolidation doesn’t ensure economic recovery and the creation of new jobs, and rapid consolidation could instead deepen the downturn. It won’t deliver a just transition towards climate resilient economies either.

Instead of austerity cuts, it is critical to create fiscal space and give governments the time, flexibility and support to achieve a sustainable, inclusive and just recovery. Immediate and urgent steps are needed to support the financial health of countries through grants and other highly concessional financing, supporting debt cancellation and restructuring, and issuing a new allocation of Special Drawing Rights. Medium to longer term recovery efforts, however, should continue promoting further fiscal and policy space that allows for an increase, rather than a decrease, in social spending, and progressive tax policies that collect sufficient revenue and redistribute wealth fairly.

This means systematically assessing the impacts of fiscal policy reforms on gender and economic inequality and rejecting those that have negative social impacts. It means negotiating agreements transparently with input from a range of stakeholders including civil society through national social dialogue. It means recommending and promoting progressive tax reforms such as taxes on wealth and the excess profits of large corporations, meaningfully combatting tax evasion, avoidance and illicit financial flows. And it means systematically supporting governments to restructure their debts so that they can prioritize investments in quality public services.

The global economy stands at a crossroads between further decades of austerity and debt crises, or adopting a macroeconomic framework compatible with fighting inequality, pursuing climate justice, realizing human rights and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. Ahead of the 2020 IMF Annual Meetings, we call on the IMF to turn away from the mistakes of the past and finally close the dark chapter on IMF-conditioned austerity for good.

List of Signatories

Organization Signatories:

1. Academics Stand Against Poverty (ASAP)

2. Accountability Lab

3. Act Church of Sweden

4. Action against Hunger

5. Action contre la Faim – France

6. ACTION Global Health Partnership

7. ActionAid International

8. Afghanistan National Education Coalition Org.

9. Africa Climate and Health Alliance

10. Africa Earth Environment and Wildlife Defenders

11. Africa Network Campaign on Education for All (ANCEFA)

12. African Coalition on Green Growth

13. Africans Rising

14. Afrihealth Optonet Association

15. Afrikajom Center



18. AIPD

19. Al Hayat Center for Civil Society Development

20. Albanian Coalition for Education

21. Alliance contre la Pauvreté au Mali (GCAP Mali)

22. Alliance of CSOs in Tajikistan for Education

23. Alliance of Women Advocating for Change

24. Alliance Sud

25. amandla.mobi


27. Approche Participative, Développement et Santé de Proximité (APDSP)

28. Arab Campaign for Education for All (ACEA)

29. Arab Forum for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

30. Arab NGO Network for Development (ANND)

31. Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law and Development

32. Asia South Pacific Association for Basic and Adult Education (ASPBAE)

33. Asian Peoples' Movement on Debt and Development

34. Asociacion Ciudadana por los Derechos Humanos

35. Asociación Po Ti Mujer

36. Assocation Deme So

37. Association Beninoise de Droit du Developpement (ABDD)

38. Association Congolaise pour le Développement Agricole (ACDA)

39. Association de Développement Agricole Éducatif et Sanitaire

40. Association Démocratique des Femmes du Maroc (ADFM)

41. Association for Promotion Sustainable Development

42. Association of Women Action (AOWA)

43. Association of Womens Organizations in Jamaica (AWOJA)

44. Association Tunisienne de Droit du Développement

45. ATGL

46. Aube Nouvelle pour la Femme et le Développement (ANFD)

47. Bank Information Center

48. Beirut Cooperative Association

49. Blood Patients Protection Council, Kerala

50. Botswana Forum for Action and Reform

51. Brazilian Campaign for the Right to Education

52. Bretton Woods Project

53. BUKO Pharma-Kampagne

54. Cadire Cameroon Association

55. CADTM International


57. Campaign for Popular Education (CAMPE)

58. Campaña Latinoamericana por el Derecho a la Educación (CLADE)

59. Caritas Honduras

60. CCFD-Terre Solidaire

61. Center for Economic and Social Rights

62. Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL)

63. Center for Women's Global Leadership

64. Center Women and Modern World

65. Centre for Advancement of Civil Liberties and Development

66. Centre for Health Science and Law (CHSL)

67. Centro de los Derechos del Campesino/Nicaragua

68. Centro de Promoción y Defensa de los Derechos Sexuales y Reproductivos (PROMSEX)

69. Cetro de Derechos Económicos y Sociales (CDES)

70. Child Rights Centre Albania

71. Childhood Education International

72. Children and Young People Living for Peace (CYPLP)

73. Citoyens Actifs pour la Justice Sociale

74. Claim the Future

75. CNCD-11.11.11

76. Coalition for Education Solomon Islands (COESI)

77. Coalition Marocaine pour l'Education Pour Tous

78. Comité de América Latina y el Caribe para la Defensa de los Derechos de las Mujeres (CLADEM)

79. CoopeSoliDar R.L

80. Coordinadora de la Mujer

81. CPM Micaela Bastidas

82. Debt Free Project

83. Debt Observatory in Globalisation (ODG)

84. Delphi Capital

85. DemNet Hungary

86. De-Signature Casuals

87. Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN)

88. Dianova International

89. Disabled People's International (DPI)

90. Diverse Voices and Action (DIVA) for Equality

91. Dominican Leadership Conference

92. Dominican Sisters of Peace


94. Durakhshi Marifat NGO

95. Earthlife Africa Jhb

96. East African Centre for Human Rights

97. Echoes of Women in Africa Initiatives

98. Ecumenical Popular Education Program (ANPE)

99. Education for all Somalia coalition (EFASOM)

100. Education International

101. Ekvilib Institute

102. Emmaus International

103. Emonyo Yefwe International

104. EnaBanda

105. Entropía Social A.C.

106. Equal Education

107. Equidad de Género: Ciudadanía, Trabajo y Familia

108. Equipo Juridico por los Derechos Humanos

109. erlassjahr.de

110. EuroMed Rights

111. EuSAIN

112. Faitima Jinnah OGA

113. Farmers' Voice (Krisoker Sor)

114. Feminist Task Force


116. Finn Church Aid

117. FOKUS - Forum for Women and Development

118. Fondo Semillas

119. Foro Social de Deuda Externa y Desarrollo de Honduras (FOSDEH)

120. Forum Social Senegalais

121. Forum Tunisien pour les Droits Economiques et Sociaux

122. Foundation for Integrated Rural Development

123. Freedom from Debt Campaign Pakistan

124. Friends of the Earth US

125. Fundacion Arcoiris por el respeto a la diversidad sexual

126. Fundación de Mujeres Luna Creciente

127. Fundación Mexicana para la Planeación Familiar, A. C. (MEXFAM)

128. Fundacion para Estudio y Investigacion de la Mujer (FEIM)

129. Fundación Unid@s

130. Gatef organization

131. GCE-Italy

132. Gender Action

133. Gender and Development Network

134. Gender and Development in Practice (GADIP)

135. Genderccsa

136. Gestos (soropositividade, comunicação, gênero)

137. Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women (GAATW)

138. Global Alliance for Tax Justice

139. Global Campaign for Education

140. Global Campaign for Education Netherlands

141. Global Campaign for Education US

142. Global Health Advocates France

143. Global Initiative for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

144. Global Justice Now

145. Global Network of Sex Work Projects

146. Global Policy Forum

147. Global Social Justice Program at IPD

148. Global South Coalition for Dignified Menstruation

149. GRAP Senegal

150. Green Economy Coalition

151. Greenpeace

152. Health Alliance International

153. Health Poverty Action

154. Hope for the Village Child Foundaton

155. Huldah Foundation

156. Human Rights Research Documentation Center (HURIC)

157. Human Rights Watch

158. IACE

159. IBON Foundation

160. Imaap Projects

161. Indus Consortium

162. Initiative for Social and Economic Rights (ISER)

163. Institut National des Administrateurs du Mali (INAM)

164. Institute for Economic Justice

165. Institute for Economic Justice (South Africa)

166. Institute for Gender & Development Studies - University of West Indies

167. Instituto de Estudos Socioeconômicos (INESC)

168. Instituto de Justicia Fiscal, Brazil

169. Instituto Popular de Capacitación Colombia (IPC)

170. Instytut Globalnej Odpowiedzialności (IGO)

171. International Accountability Project

172. International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH)

173. International Trade Union Confederation

174. International Women's Rights Action Watch Asia Pacific (IWRAW Asia Pacific)


176. Jamaa Resource Initiatives

177. Japan Civil Society Network on SDGs

178. Japan NGO Network for Education (JNNE)

179. Jordan Coalition for Education for All

180. Jordanian Coalition for Education

181. Jubilee Debt Campaign

182. Jubilee Scotland

183. Jubilee USA Network

184. Justice Is Global

185. K.U.L.U. - Women and Development

186. KRuHA

187. Ladysmith

188. Latindadd

189. Laura Thompson Coaching & Consulting Services

190. Lebanese Union of Persons with Physical Disabilities (LUPD)

191. Lift Saxum

192. Live Alive Network LIAN

193. Local Green Party/Prairie Greens

194. Madhyam

195. Maharashtra State Bank Employees Federation

196. Make Mothers Matter

197. MARUAH, Singapore

198. Mediating for the less privileged and Women Development (MEWOOD)

199. Medical IMPACT

200. Medicus Mundi International - Network Health for All (MMI)

201. Medicusmundi spain

202. MENA PLATFORM for Renewable Energies & Energy Efficiency

203. Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate

204. Movimiento Manuela Ramos

205. Murna Foundation

206. National Campaign for Sustainable Development Nepal

207. National Coalition of Civil Society Organizations of Liberia

208. Nawi - Afrifem Macroeconomics Collective

209. Network for Women´s Rights and Feminist Perspectives in Development (WIDE)

210. Nigerian Women Agro Allied Farmers Association

211. NQBSS Livestock Breeders

212. Observatoire de Suivi des Indicateurs de Développement Économique en Afrique (OSIDEA)

213. Observatori DESC

214. Observatorio de la Deuda

215. Oikos - Cooperação e Desenvolvimento

216. ONG 3D

217. ONG Étoiles de la fraternité

218. ONG Un Monde Avenir

219. Our Lady of Perpetual Help Initiative

220. Oxfam

221. Pakistan Fisherfolk Forum

222. Panafricaine pour l'Education au Developpement Durable (PAEDD)

223. Papua New Guinea Education Advocacy Network

224. Participatory Development Action Program

225. PCQVP Mali

226. People's Health Movement Canada/Mouvement populaire pour la santé au Canada

227. Phakamani Trust

228. Phelyn Skill Acquisition Center (PSAC)

229. Phenix Center for Economic Studies

230. Piña Palmera A.C.

231. Plan International

232. Plataforma Auditoria Ciudadana de la Deuda

233. Policies for Equitable Access to Health (PEAH)

234. Policy Research in Macroeconomics (PRIME)

235. Princess of Africa Foundation

236. Public Services International (PSI)

237. Publiez Ce Que Vous Payez-Mali

238. Radha Paudel Foundation

239. Rapad Maroc

240. Rasheed for Integrity and Transparency

241. Rays of hope Support Iinitiative

242. Recourse

243. Red de Educación Popular entre Mujeres (REPEM)

244. Red Dot Foundation

245. Red Nicaragüense de Comercio Comunitario (RENICC)

246. Red por la Justicia Tributaria en Colombia y Centro de Estudios Cedetrabajo

247. Réseau Africain Pour le Droit à l'Alimentation Sénégal

248. Right to Education Initiative

249. Rose Academies

250. ROTAB Niger

251. Rural Area Development Programme (RADP)

252. Rwenzori Center for Research and Advocacy

253. Sadaqa

254. SECTION27 (South Africa)

255. Servicio Desarrollo Rural y Agricultira (SEDRA) Chile

256. Servicios Ecumenicos para Reconciliacion y Reconstrucction

257. Shirakat - Partnership for Development

258. Sisters of Charity Federation

259. Social Justice in Global Development

260. Socialist Campaign Group of MPs

261. Society for International Development (SID)

262. Society for Rights of Persons with Disability

263. Society for the Improvement of Rural People (SIRP)

264. South Asia Alliance for Poverty Eradication (SAAPE)

265. Southern Africa Climate Change Coalition

266. Strategic Initiative for women in the Horn of Africa (SIHA Network)

267. Success Capital Organisation

268. Sukaar Welfare Organization

269. Support for Women in Agriculture and Environment (SWAGEN)

270. Tamkeen for legal aid and Human Rights

271. Tedhelte


273. The East African Centre for Human Rights

274. The Human Rights and Privatization Project at NYU School of Law

275. The Iraqi Institution for Development

276. The Jordanian Association for Basic Education

277. The Kota Alliance

278. The Kvinna till Kvinna Foundation

279. The People’s Fund for Global Health and Development

280. Third World Network

281. Transnational Institite

282. Tripla Difesa Onlus

283. Triumphant Health & Development Initiative (THAD)

284. UNABU-Rwanda

285. Urgent Action Fund for Women's Human Rights

286. Uthema Maldives

287. Vision Spring Initiatives

288. VSO

289. Water Justice and Gender

290. Wemos

291. Win Without War

292. Woman Inc

293. Womankind Worldwide

294. Women Against Rape Inc.

295. Women and Modern World Social Charitable Center

296. Women Engage for a Common Future (WECF)

297. Women In Development Europe+ (WIDE+)

298. Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing (WIEGO)

299. Women's International League for Peace and Freedom

300. Women's Major Group

301. Wote Youth Development Projects

302. YDA

303. Yemen Organization for Promoting Integrity

304. Youth and Small Holder Farmers Association

305. Youth For Environment Education and Development Foundation (YFEED Foundation)

306. Zimbabwe Climate Change Coalition

307. Zimbabwe Institute for International Affairs

Academic Signatories

308. Medha A S

309. Khalil Abu Radwan

310. Meena Acharya, Tanka Prasad Acharya Memorial Foundation (TPAMF)

311. Frank Adamson, California State University

312. Olanrewaju Adediran

313. Kanika Agarwal

314. Astrid Agenjo-Calderón, Universidad Pablo de Olavide de Sevilla

315. A. Haroon Akram-Lodhi, Trent University

316. Manuel Alcantara-Saez

317. Rasha Alyatim

318. Prem Anand

319. Bethsabé Andía Pérez, Instituto Runa de Desarrollo y Estudios de Género

320. Kossi Apedo

321. Fidel Aroche Reyes

322. Joaquín Arriola, Universidad del País Vasco-Euskal Herriko Unibersitatea

323. Venkatesh Athreya, Bharathidasan University

324. Radhika Balakrishnan, Rutgers University

325. David Barkin

326. Eudine Barriteau, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus

327. Nicola Bates, Royal Holloway University of London

328. Walden Bello

329. Suzanne Bergeron, University of Michigan, Dearborn

330. Gunseli Berik, University of Utah

331. Anne-Emanuelle Birn, University of Toronto

332. Chiara Bodini, Centre for International and Intercultural Health, University of Bologna

333. Julio Boltvinik, El Colegio de México

334. Korkut Boratav, Turkish Social Science Organisaton

335. Lea Bou Khater

336. Abdoul Maliky Bousso, Forum Civil membre du Bureau Exécutif

337. Roger Bove, West Chester University

338. Andrea Burke, Western University

339. Theopiste Butare

340. Saratchand C, Satyawati College, University of Delhi

341. Francisco Calbet

342. Francisco Cantamutto, IIESS UNS-CONICET

343. Gloria Careaga, Facultad de Psicologia

344. Andrea Cerdeira

345. Sergio Cesaratto, University of Siena

346. Cecilia Chan, The University of Hong Kong

347. C. P. Chandrasekhar, Jawaharlal Nehru University

348. Anuradha Chenoy

349. Andrés Chiriboga-Tejada, Max Plank Sciences Po Center on Coping with Instability in Market Societies (MaxPo)

350. Anis Chowdhury, Western Sydney University

351. Licia Cianetti, Royal Holloway, University of London

352. Lylian Coelho Ferreira, INWES

353. Marjorie Griffin Cohen, Simon Fraser University

354. Andrew Cornford

355. Agostina Costantino, CONICET-UNS

356. Christopher Cramer

357. Sharmistha DasBarwa

358. Dilara Demir

359. Ritu Dewan, Mumbai School of Economics & Public Policy, University of Mumbai

360. Massamba Diene

361. Lena Dominelli

362. Edme Dominguez R

363. Peter Dorman, Evergreen State College

364. Devika Dutt, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

365. Narasimha Reddy Duvvuru, University of Hyderabad

366. Gary Dymski, University of Leeds

367. Tom Dyson, Royal Holloway College, University of London

368. Nevine Ebeid

369. Martin Edwards, Seton Hall University

370. Diène El Hadji Bara

371. Rebecca Engel

372. Sofia Ercolessi, London School of Economics and Political Science

373. Bilge Erten

374. Fernanda Faria Silva, Federal University of Ouro Preto

375. Frederik Federspiel, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

376. Ben Fine, School of Oriental and African Studies

377. Marzia Fontana, The Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex

378. John Foster, University of Regina

379. Odile Frank, Global Coalition for Social Protection Floors

380. Mia Gandenberger

381. José Manuel García

382. Leonardo Garnier, Universidad de Costa Rica

383. Laura Gatto, University of Lausanne

384. Shambhu Ghatak

385. Jayati Ghosh, Jawaharlal Nehru University

386. Paul Gilbert, University of Sussex

387. Mwangi Githinji

388. Ilene Grabel, Josef Korbel School, University of Denver

389. Alberto Grana

390. Tyrone Grandstrand, Levy Economics Institute of Bard College

391. Katarzyna Gruszka

392. Krzysztof Hagemejer, Collegium Civitas

393. Emmanuel Haruna, Kobe University

394. Asha Herten-Crabb, London School of Economics

395. Himanshu Himanshu, Centre for Economic Studies and Planning, Jawaharlal Nehru University

396. Craig Holmes, Oxford University

397. Jason Hoobler

398. Prue Hyman, Victoria University of Wellington

399. Okwor Ijeoma

400. Gustavo Indart, Department of Economics, University of Toronto

401. Elisabet Jané Camacho

402. Rajiv Jha, Shri Ram College of Commerce, Delhi University

403. Naresh Kumar Jhamb, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board

404. Will Jones, Royal Holloway, University of London

405. Pramod (Raja) Junankar, UNSW Canberra

406. Fadhel Kaboub, Denison University

407. Aarushi Kalra, Brown University

408. Zahra Karimi, University of Mazandaran

409. Eduardo Katalahary

410. Bhola Khan, Yobe State University

411. Ausi Kibowa

412. Konstantin Kilibarda, School of Labour Studies, McMaster University

413. Mary King, Portland State University

414. Gabriele Koehler, UNRISD

415. Jeanne Koopman, Boston University African Studies Center

416. Ronald Labonte, University of Ottawa

417. Kathleen Lahey, Faculty of Law, Queen's University

418. Daniela Lai, Royal Holloway, University of London

419. Melissa Langworthy

420. Thibaut Lauwerier, University of Geneva

421. Stephan Lefebvre, Bucknell University

422. Jens Lerche, SOAS, University of London

423. Adam Lerner

424. Masaya Llavaneras Blanco

425. Rita Locatelli

426. Rodrigo Lopez-Pablos, ITMO University

427. Diouf Mamadou - Mignane

428. Laura Mann

429. Divine Manu

430. Pablo José Martínez Osés

431. Pietro Masina, University of Naples L'Orientale

432. Ana Luíza Matos de Oliveira

433. Marjorie Mbilinyi

434. Terry McKinley, SOAS, University of London

435. Kate Meagher, London School of Economics

436. Jameson Mencias, CELAG

437. Pedro Mendes Loureiro, University of Cambridge

438. John Miller, Wheaton College

439. Aniruddha Mitra, Bard College

440. Mritiunjoy Mohanty

441. Tracy Mott, University of Denver

442. Ndiaye Moustapha

443. Muhammed Muqtada, International Labour Organization (ILO)

444. G.N. Nagaraj

445. Luiz M Niemeyer, Economics Department, Catholic University of Sao Paulo

446. Bindu Oberoi

447. Uchenna Obiajulu

448. Akaninyene Obot, Nnamdi Azikiwe University

449. Sarah Olembo

450. Ben O'Loughlin

451. Ozlem Onaran, University of Greenwich

452. T. Sabri Öncü

453. Isabel Ortiz, Global Social Justice Program IPD

454. Mustafa Özer

455. Opal Palmer Adisa, University of the West Indies

456. Nuria Pedrals Pugès

457. Maria Pentaraki, Queen's University Belfast

458. Patricia E. Perkins, York University

459. Ivica Petrikova

460. James Pfeiffer, University of Washington

461. Nicolas Pons-Vignon, La Scuola universitaria professionale della Svizzera italiana (SUPSI)

462. Pratiush Prakash

463. James Putzel, London School of Economics

464. Alicia Puyana

465. Katharine Ransom, The Outreach Team

466. Roland Riachi, American University of Beirut

467. Paul Robertson

468. Leopoldo Rodriguez, Portland State University

469. Naomi Roht-Arriaza, UC Hastings Law

470. Marco Romero

471. Rick Rowden, American University

472. Ariela Ruiz Caro, Andean Region and Southern Cone, The Americas Program

473. Judith Ryder

474. Alfredo Saad Filho, King's College London

475. Babacar Sall

476. Carmen Sarasua

477. Esther Schneider

478. Caitlin Schroering, University of Pittsburgh

479. Patricia Schulz

480. Stephanie Seguino

481. Veronica Serafini

482. Om Sharma

483. Rasheed Shittu

484. Eleuterio Fernando Silva Prado, University of Sao Paulo

485. Ana Sojo

486. Frances Stewart, University of Oxford

487. Diana Strassmann, Rice University

488. Paul Stubbs

489. Thomas Stubbs, Royal Holloway, University of London

490. Ignasi Terradas, The University of Barcelona

491. María Luisa Torregrosa, FLACSO Mexico

492. Irene van Staveren

493. Elisa Van Waeyenberge, SOAS, University of London

494. Leonidas Vatikiotis

495. María-Luisa Vazquez

496. Denisse Vélez

497. Teófilo Ventura

498. Frans Verhagen, International Institute for Monetary Transformation

499. Giovanna Vertova, University of Bergamo

500. Stella Maris Vuillermet, Foro De Generos PCIA BS AS Y CABA

501. Warren Whatley, University of Michigan

502. Veronika Wodsak

503. Yavuz Yasar, University of Denver

504. Ajit Zacharias, Levy Economics Institute of Bard College